Grains are the major energy source in most animal diets. The energy levels are related to the amount of starch in the grain. The ranking from highest to lowest in energy is maize, sorghum, wheat, barley then oats. For more information on trading in Grains see the Commodities page.
Lupins are a legume grown predominantly in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales for stock feed. Lupins can be fed as a part of a balanced diet to all animals.
There are two basic types of lupins, bitter and sweet varieties. The ones currently grown commercially as a stock feed in Australia are the sweet types of the narrow leafed lupin (L. angustifolius) which has the cultivars Merrit, Gungurru, Warrah, Yorrel and Danj and the white lupin (L. albus) which has the cultivars Ultra, Hamburg, Kiev and Neuland.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
- Crushed, untreated lupin seed of sweet varieties can be included in diets of pigs, poultry, ruminants and horses of all ages.
- Broiler diets containing lupins as the sole protein concentrate can be fed without any adverse effects provided that the lysine and methionine levels are maintained.
- Similarly, lupins have been shown to be able to replace half of the meat meal used in layer diets without any adverse effect on layer performance. In one study lupins were included at up to 20 percent of the layer diet without any harmful effect on performance.
- In pigs, lupin seed has been found to be as good a source of protein as meat meal or soybean meal when comparisons have been made on the basis of equal contributions of lysine.
SUGGESTED MAXIMUM INCLUSION RATES IN TOTAL DIET
|SPECIES||MAX. INCLUSION RATES|
|PIGS - Weaner||5%|
|PIGS - Grower||15%|
|PIGS - Finisher||25%|
|PIGS - Breeder||10%|
|POULTRY - Layer||10%|
|POULTRY - Broiler||10%|
|CATTLE AND SHEEP||20%|
- No limitation on the inclusion of sweet varieties.
- As there is no simple method of detecting the alkaloid contents of lupin seeds, it is important that only lupins known to be grown from certified sweet seed be used as livestock feed.
- Manganese accumulation of white lupins may limit the level of inclusion.
- The bitter strains of lupins contain up to 2.0 percent of an alkaloid, which is highly toxic to pigs and poultry. The certified varieties of sweet lupins grown in Australia contain only traces (less than 0.05 percent) of alkaloid and are both safe and palatable to livestock without any form of heat treatment.
Refer to M. Evans1.